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Snippet Name: Alternate Title Case function

Description: Intelligently converts a string into title case.

Comment: (none)

Author: CoderZone
Language: PHP
Highlight Mode: PHP
Last Modified: March 06th, 2009

// converts a string into title case
function titleCase($string) {
     // list of words we don't want to capitalize
     $smallWords = array ('of', 'a', 'the', 'and', 'an', 
                    'or', 'nor', 'but', 'is', 'if', 'then', 
                    'else', 'when', 'at', 'from', 'by', 'on', 
                    'off', 'for', 'in', 'out', 'over', 'to', 
                    'into', 'with');
     // special words that should be written as-is
     $specialWords = array ('II', 'IV', 'A-Level', '\'s', 'UK', 'VI', 
                                   '<i>', ''s', 'III', 'VII');
     // punctuation used to determine that the following letter 
     // should be capitalised
     $punctuation = array ('.', '-', ':', '!', '\'', '-', '?');
     // replacements
     $replacements = array(
     array(''', '\''));
     // replace any non-letters or numbers with spaces so we 
     // know what the actual words are
     $cleanString = preg_replace("/[^\w]/", ' ', $string);
     // the original string split into an array of individual 
     // characters so we can replace the modified characters
     $originalStringSplit = str_split($string);
     // split the string of letters and spaces only into an array
     $allWords = explode(' ', $cleanString);
     // go through each element in the array and check whether 
     // the word appears in the short words list
     // if it is not, we need to capitalize the word
     foreach($allWords as $key => $word) {
          if(!in_array($word, $smallWords)){
               $allWords[$key] = ucfirst($word);
     // convert the array back to a string
     $allWords = implode(' ', $allWords);
     // the title-cased string split into characters so we can 
     // replace them original characters with them
     $titleStringSplit = str_split($allWords);
     // check through each character and replace the one stored 
     // in the original string if it is a letter
     foreach($titleStringSplit as $key => $char) {
          if($char != " ") {
               $originalStringSplit[$key] = $char;
     // join all the characters back into a string
     $titleString = implode('', $originalStringSplit);
     // make the first letter after certain punctuation capitalized, 
     // regardless of the normal rules. I.e. "Shakespeare: The Bard"
     foreach($punctuation as $char) {
          // match anything which starts with the punctuation type that 
          // we are checking for until the first letter which follows it
          // and replace that with a capitalized version of the string
          // I.e.
          // : the => |: t| => : The
          // Twentieth-century => |-c| => Twentieth-Century
          $titleString = preg_replace("/(" . preg_quote($char) . "\s*[a-zA-Z])/ie", "strtoupper('\\1')", $titleString);
     // capitalize the very first letter of the sentence, as it may 
     // appear after punctuation which we would not normally
     // use to determine whether a word should be capitalised
     $titleString = preg_replace("/(^[^a-zA-Z]*[a-zA-Z])/ie", "strtoupper('\\1')", $titleString);
     // find and replace text
     foreach($replacements as $replacement) {
          $find = $replacement[0];
          $replace = $replacement[1];
          $titleString = str_ireplace($find, $replace, $titleString);
     // sort out any "special" words last so they are not 
     // overwritten with our previous rules
     foreach($specialWords as $specialWord) {
          // check for each special word, regardless of case and 
          // replace it with the word stored in the array
          $titleString = preg_replace("/\b" . $specialWord . "\b/i", $specialWord, $titleString);
     return $titleString;
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